Database management is the method for managing data that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications, editing it as needed and monitoring changes to data and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a business that supports decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is tables that are organized according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are shotikala.ir the most used database type currently. This model is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to modify many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of various external views based on different data models and can include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.

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